Highrise Buildings Fire Safety
“O Agni, help us to gain prosperity by leading us on the righteous path, you know all our thoughts and actions. Redeem us from all our sins and evil ways. We bow before you with gratitude”.
How to Call Fire Brigade
- Remember that every minute is valuable once fire breaks out.
- Dial 101 or 108 your nearest police station
- Tell your name, address, telephone number and land marks to identify place of fire.
- Tell what is on fire and place of fire.
- Keep the phone receiver and wait for confirmation.
- Do all these things coolly and calmly.
- Avoid false calls; it will delay really needy people’s calls. This may be your own relative or friend.
FIRE PREVENTION DO IT FOR LIFE
ANDHRA PRADESH FIRE AND EMERGENCY SERVICES
FIRE SERVICE WEEK
Six decades age:
On Friday, April 14, 1944, the Cargo vessel S.S. Fort, Stikine, carrying ammunitions, caught fire and exploded at Victoria Dock, Bombay. The holocaust that followed took a heavy toll. Hundreds of men from the Bombay Fire Brigade fought the bale. For 66 of them, it was the last CALL. Today we pay homage to those courageous men. And so that they may not have laid down their lives in vain. Let us dedicate ourselves to the fight against fire.
Our Pledge Today
- To do our utmost to prevent fires
- To save lives and property
- To be on constant alert against fires
- To be help others escape, without panic
- To thus prevent human and economic National Prosperity
- To effectively fight fire and conduct rescue operations at all times need
- To increase public concern for safety and prevention of fire accidents and spread the message of Fire Prevention.
- To formulate codes of discipline fir preventing fire accidents.
- To guide various sections of society in setting up fire prevention system.
Fire Easy to Prevent. Hard to Fight.
FIRE RISK ASSEMENT IN HIGHRISE BUILDINGS
Step 01 IDENTIFY FIRE HAZARDS
For a fire to start, three things are needed:
- A source of ignition;
- Fuel; and
If any one of these is missing, a fire cannot start. Taking measure to avoid the three coming together will therefore reduce the chances of a fire occurring.
The remaining for this step will advise on how to identify potential ignition sources, the materials that might fuel a fire and the oxygen supplies that will help it burn.
1.1 Identify sources of ignition
You can identify the potential ignition sources in your premises by looking for possible sources of heat, which could get hot enough to ignite material found in your premises. These sources could include.
- Smokers material, e.g. cigarettes, matches and lighters; naked flames, e.g. candles, night lights, gas or liquid fuelled open-flame equipment.
- Electrical, gas or oil-fired heaters (Fixed or portable).
- Hot processes, e.g. welding by contractors.
- Cooking equipment and activities.
- Machinery with hot surface.
- Faulty or misused electrical equipment. e.g. halogen lamps or table lamp, obstruction of ventilation equipment, and rson.
Indications of ‘near-misses’, such as scorch marks on furniture or fittings, discolored or charred electrical plugs and sockets, cigarette burns etc., can help you identify hazard which you may not otherwise notice.
1.2 Identify sources of fuel
Anything that burns is fuel for a fire. You need to look for the things that will burn reasonably easily and are in enough quantity to provide fuel for a fire or cause it to spread to another fuel source. Some of the most common ‘fuels’ found in premises providing sleeping accommodation are:
- Furniture (Permanent and temporary storage).
- Textiles and soft furnishings, such as hanging curtains and clothing display.
- Laundry (bedding, linen, towels).
- WAst Products, Particularly finely divided items such as shredded paper and wood shavings, off cuts, and dust?
- Waste storage refuses containers and skips.
- Flammable – liquids and solvents, such as white spirit, methylated spirit, cooking oils and disposable cigarette lighters.
- Flammable liquids and solvents, such as white spirit, methylated spirit, cooking oils and disposable cigarette lighters.
- Flammable chemicals such as cleaning products, photocopier chemicals and dry cleaning that uses hydrocarbon solvents.
- Flammable gases such liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), and aerosols.
- Paper products, packaging materials stationary, advertising material, paper and books.
- Decorations for seasonal and religious occasions.
- Plastics rubbers such as video tapes, polyurethane foam-filled furniture and polystyrene-based display materials.
- Guest possessions and
- Wall and ceiling hangings.
1.3 Identify sources of oxygen
The main source of oxygen for a fire is in the air around us. In an enclosed building this is provided by the ventilation system, in use. This generally falls into one of two categories: natural airflow through doors, windows and other openings; or mechanical air conditioning system, and air handing systems, In many buildings there will be a combination of systems, which will be capable of introducing/extracting air and from the building.
Additional sources of oxygen can sometimes be found in materials used or stored at premises such as:
- Some chemicals (oxidization materials), which can provide a fire with additional oxygen and so help it burn. Thes3 chemicals should be identified on their container by the manufacture or supplier who can advise as to their safe use and storage.
- Oxygen supplies from cylinder storage e.g., oxygen used in welding processes and
- Pyrotechnics (Fireworks), which contain oxidizing materials and need to be treated with great care.
- Have you identified all potential ignition sources?
- Have you identified all potential fuel sources?
- Have you identified all potential sources of oxygen?
- Have you made a note of your findings?
STEP 02: IDENTIFY PEOPLE AT RISK
As part of your fire risk assessment you need to identify those at risk if there is a fire. To do this your need to identify the occupants of the premises e.g., guests, residents, people working, either at permanent work stations or at risk such as visitors, visiting contractors etc. And where these people are likely to be found.
You must consider all the people show use the premises but you should pay particular attention to people who may especially at risk such as:
- People asleep (who will be slow to respond and disorientated).
- Employees who work alone and / or in isolated areas e.g. cleaners, maintenance staff, security staff, night staff.
- People who are unfamiliar with the premises e.g., guest, visitors, customers, seasonal staff, new staff and contractors.
- Unaccompanied children and young persons.
- People with disabilities *(including mobility impairment, or hearing or vision impairment etc.
- People who may have some other reason for not being able to leave the premises quickly, e.g. parents with children.
- People who are sensorial impaired due to alcohol, drugs or medication and
- Other people in the immediate vicinity of your premises.
- Have you identified who is at risk?
- Have you identified why they are at risk?
- Have you made a note of your findings?
STEP 03 EVALUATE, REMOVE, REDUCE AND PROTECT FROM RISK
The management of the premises and the way people use it will have an effect on your evaluation of risk. Management may be your responsibility alone or there may be others, such as the building owners or managing agents, who also have responsibilities. In multi-occupied buildings all those with some control must co-operate and you need to consider the risk generated by other in the building.
3.1 Evaluate the risk of a fire occurring:
The chances of a fire starting will be low if your premises have few ignition sources and combustible materials are kept away from them.
In general, fires start in one of three ways:
- Accidentally, such as when smoking materials are not properly extinguished or when electrical equipment is not properly maintained or when waste is allowed to accumulate near to a heat source and
- Deliberately, such as an arson attack involving setting fire to external rubbish bins placed too close to the building.
- Look critically at your premises and try to identify any accidents waiting to happen and any acts or omissions which might allow a fire to start. You should also be look for any situation that may present an opportunity for an arsonist.
3.2 Evaluate the risk to people
In step 2 you identified the people likely to be at risk should a fire start any where in the premises and earlier in step3 you identified the chances of a fire occurring
It is unlikely that you will have concluded that there is no chance of a fire staring anywhere in your premises so you now need to evaluate the actual risk to have identified
While determining the possible incidents you should also consider the likelihood of any particular incident, but be aware that some very unlikely incidents can put many people at risk.
To evaluate the risk to people in your premises you will need to understand the way fire can spread. Fire is spread by three methods:
- Conduction and
Fire spread by convection is the most dangerous and caused the largest number of injuries and deaths. When fires start in enclosed spaces such as buildings, the smoke rising from the fire gets trapped by the ceiling and then spreads in all directions to form an ever-deepening layer over the entire room space. The smoke will pass through any holes or gaps in the walls, ceiling and floor into other parts of the building. The heat from the fire gets trapped in the building and the temperature rises.
Some materials, such as metal shutters and ducting, can absorb heat and transmit it to the next room, where it can set fire to combustible items that are in contact with the heated material.
Radiation heats the air in the same way as an electric bar heater heats a room. Any material close to a fire will absorb the heat until the item starts to smolders and then burn.
Smoke produced by a fire also contains toxic gases which are harmful to people. A fire in a building with modern fittings and materials generates smoke that is thick and black, obscures vision, caused great difficulty in breathing and can block the escape routes.
In evaluating this risk to people you will need to consider situations such as:
Fire starting on a lower floor affecting the only escape route for people on upper floors or the only escape route for people with disabilities.
- Fire or smoke spreading through a building via routes such as vertical shafts, service-ducts, linen and waste chutes, ventilation systems, poorly installed, poorly maintained or damaged walls, partitions and ceilings affecting people in remote areas.
- Fire and smoke spreading through a building due to poor installation of fire precautions, e.g., incorrectly installed fire doors (see Appendix B2 for more information on fire doors) or incorrectly and damaged fire doors or fire doors being wedged open.
3.3 Remove or reduce the hazards
Having identified the fire hazards in Step1, you now need to remove those hazards if reasonably practicable to do so. If you cannot remove the hazards, you need to take reasonable steps to reduce them if you can. This is an essential part of fire risk assessment and as a priority this must take place before any other actions.
Ensure that any actions you take to remove or reduce fire hazards or risk are not substituted by other hazards or risks. For example, if you replace substituted by other hazards or risks. For example, if you replace a flammable substance or
risks. Toxic to corrosive one, you must consider whether this might cause harm to people in other ways.
Remove or reduce sources of ignition
There are various ways that you can reduce the risk caused by potential sources of ignition for example:
Operate safe smoking policy in designated smoking areas and prohibit smoking else where, ensuring sufficient ashtrays are provided and cleaned appropriately.
Replace naked flame and radiant heaters with fixed convector heaters or a central heating system. Restrict the movement of and guard portable heating appliances.
Ensure electrical mechanical and gas equipment is installed used maintained and protected in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions e.g., electric blankets, cooking appliances.
Ensure all electric sockets are not overloaded.
Check all areas where hot work (e.g. welding) has been carried out to ensure that not ignition has taken place or any smoldering materials remain that may cause a fire.
Ensure that no one carrying out work on gas fittings that involves exposing pipes that contain or have contained flammable gas any source of ignition such as blow-lamps or hot-air guns.
Ensure that no one uses any source of ignition while searching for an escape of gas.
Operate a permit-to-work system for maintenance contractors who carry out hot work.
Take precautions to avoid arson.
Remove any unnecessary sources of heat and/or replace with safer alternatives.
Remove or reduce sources of fuel
There are various ways that you can reduce the risks caused by materials and substances which burn, for example:
Ensure combustible items, such as furniture, laundry, decorations, are stored properly and are separate from potential ignition sources, such as boilers.
Reduce the amount of combustible materials, such as paper products and plastics. Keep spare items in storerooms or storage areas where the public are not allowed to go.
Make sure staff responsible for cleaning bedrooms is aware of potential fire hazards (e.g. storage, use and disposal of aerosols/newspapers) that may be brought into rooms by guests and residents and left in a haphazard manner creating a fire risk). You should have a policy in place to deal with this constant hazard.
Remove are treat large areas of highly combustible wall and ceiling linings, e.g. polystyrene or carpet tiles, to reduce the rate of flame spread across the surface.
Reduce or protect combustible display, furnishings and foliage.
Develop a formal system for the control of combustible waste by ensuring that waste materials and rubbish are not allowed to build up and care carefully stored until property disposed of, particularly at the end of the day.
Clean ducts and flues.
- Reduce stocks of flammable materials, liquids and gases to a minimum. Keep remaining stock in dedicated storerooms and storage areas, preferably outside, where the public are not allowed to go, and keep the minimum required for the operation of the business.
- Ensure flammable materials, liquids and gases to a minimum are kept to a minimum, and are stored properly with adequate separation distances between them.
- Do not keep flammable solids, liquids and gases together.
- Take action to avoid any parts of the premises, and in particular storage areas being vulnerable to arson or vandalism.
- Check all areas where foot work (e.g. welding) has been carried out to ensure that no ignition has taken place a no smoldering or hot materials remain that may cause a fire later.
Remove or reduce sources of oxygen
You can reduce the potential source of oxygen supplied to a fire by:
Closing all doors, windows an other openings not required for ventilation, particularly out of working hours.
Shutting down ventilation systems which are not essential to the function of the premises.
Not storing oxidizing materials near of with any heat source or flammable materials and
Controlling the use and storage of oxygen cylinders, ensuring that they are not leaking.
Remove or reduce the risks to people
Having evaluated and addressed the risk of fire occurring and the risks to people (preventative measures) it is unlikely that you will have concluded that no risk remains of fire staring and presenting a risk to people in your premises.
You now need to reduce the remaining fire risk to people to as low as reasonable practicable by ensuring that adequate fire precautions are in place to warm people in the event of a fire and allow them to safely escape.
The level of ire protection you need to provide will depend on the level of risk that remains in the premises after you have removed or reduced the hazards and risks. Table 23 of Part 4 of NBC of India 2005 given the fire Protection required for your premises.
Flexibility of fire protection measures
Flexibility will be required when applying this guidance, the level of fire protection should be proportional to the risk posed to the safety of the people in the remaining risk to a level as low as reasonably practicable. The higher the risk of fire and risk to life, the higher the standards of fire protection wick nee to be.
Your premises may not exactly fit the solutions suggested in this guide and they may need to be applied in a flexible manner without compromising the safety of the occupants.
For example, if the travel distance is in excess of the norm for the level of risk you have determined, if may be necessary to do any one or a combination of the following to compensate:
Provide earlier warning of the fire using automatic fire detection.
Revise the layout to reduce travel distances.
Reduce the fire by removing or reducing combustible materials and/or ignition sources.
Control the area to trained staff only (no public)
Increase staff training and awareness.
Note: The above list is not exhaustive and is only used to illustrate some examples of trade-offs to provide safe premises.
If you decide to significantly vary away from the benchmarks in this guidance then you should seek expert advice before doing so.
Developing Emergency Plans for High-rise buildings
Emergency plan and contingency plans
You emergency plan should be appropriate to your premises and could include:
- How people will be warned if there a fire.
- What staff/wardens should do if they discover a fire?
- What guest/residents should do if they discover a fire?
- How the evacuation of the premises should be carried out.
- Where people should assemble after they have left the premises and procedure for checking whether the premises have been evacuated.
- Procedure where there are no staff.
- Identification of key escape routes, how people can gain access to them and escape from them to a place or total safety.
- Arrangements for the safe evacuation of people identified as being especially at risk, such as those with disabilities, children, and lone workers.
- Any machines/appliances/power supplies that need to be stopped or isolated if there is a fire.
- Specific arrangement, if necessary, for high-fire-risk areas.
- Contingency plans (e.g. restrictions on the use of the building) for when life safety systems such as evacuation lifts, fire-detection and warning systems, sprinklers or smoke control systems are out of order.
- How the fire and rescue service and any other necessary service will be called and who will be responsible for doing this.
- Procedures for meeting the fire and rescue service on their arrival and notifying them of any special risks e.g. the location of highly flammable materials, and
- Legion between building owners, employers managing agents, other occupiers, residents and the fire and rescue service.
As part of your emergency plan it is good practice to prepare post-incidents plans for dealing with situations that might arise such as those involving.
- Unaccompanied children.
- People with personal belonging (especially valuables) still in the building.
- People in state of undress (e.g. swimmers).
- People wishing to rejoin friends.
- Getting people away from the building (e.g. to transport), and
- Inclement weather.
You should also prepare contingency plans to determine specific actions and/or the mobilization of specialist resources.
Information, Instruction co-operation and co-ordination
You must provide easily understandable information to employees, the parents of children your may employ, and to employers of other persons working in your premises about the measures in place to ensure a safe escape from the building and how they will operate, for example:
- Any significant risks to staff and other relevant persons that have been identified in your fire risk assessment or any similar assessment carried out by another user and responsible person in the building.
- The fire prevention and protection measures and procedures in your premises and where they impact on staff and other relevant persons in the building.
- The procedure for fighting a fire in the premises, and
- The identity of people who have been nominated with specific responsibilities in the building.
Even if you do not have to record the fire risk assessment, it would be helpful to keep a record of any cooperation and exchange of information made between employers and other responsible people for reference.
You need to ensure that all staff and where necessary, other relevant persons in the building, receive appropriate information in a way that can be easily understood. This might include any special instructions to particular people who have been allocated a specific task, such as shutting down equipment or guiding people to the nearest exit. This may also include residents and guests.
Where you share premises with others (this includes people who are self-employed or in partnership), each responsible person, i.e. each employer, owner or other person who has control over any part of the premises, will need to co-operate and co-ordinate the findings of their separate fire risk assessments to ensure the fire precautions and protection measures are effective throughout the building.
Fire safety training
The actions of staff if there is a Fire are likely to be crucial to their safety and that of other people in the premises. All staff should receive basic fire safety induction training and attend refresher sessions at predetermined intervals.
You should ensure that all staff and contractors are told about the emergency plan and are shown the escape routes.
The training should take account of the findings of the fire risk assessment and be easily understood by all those attending. It should include the role that those members of staff will be expected to carry out if a fire occurs. This may vary in large premises, with some staff being appointed as fire marshals or being given some other particular role for which additional about:
- The items listed in your emergency plan.
- The importance of fire doors and other basic fire prevention measures.
- Where relevant, the appropriate use of firefighting equipment.
- The importance of reporting to the assembly area.
- Exit routes and the operation of exit devices, including physically walking these routes.
- General matters such as permitted smoking areas or restrictions on cooking other than in designated areas, and
- Assisting disable persons where necessary
Training is necessary:
- Helping those on the premises to leave
- Checking the premises to ensure everyone has left,
- Using firefighting equipment’s if safe to do so.
- Liaising with the fire and rescue service on arrival.
- Shutting down vital or dangerous equipment’s, and
- Performing a supervisory/managing role in an fire situation.
Training for this role may include:
- Detailed knowledge of the fire safety strategy of the premises.
- Awareness of human behavior in fires.
- How to encourage others to use the areas that are unsafe to enter.
- The difficulties that some people, particularly if disabled, may have in escaping and any special evacuation arrangements that have been pre-planned.
- Additional training in the use of firefighting equipment.
- An understanding of the purpose of any fixed firefighting equipment such as sprinklers or gas flooding system, and
- Reporting of faults, incidents and near misses.
Once the emergency plan has been developed and training given, you will need to evaluate its effectiveness. The best way to do this is to perform a fire drill. This should be carried out at least annually or as determined by your fire risk assessments. If you have a high staff turnover, you may need to carry them out more often.
A well-planned and executed fire drill will confirm understanding of the training and provide helpful information for the future training, such as time required to waken people. The responsible person should determine the possible objective of the drill such as to:
- Identify any weaknesses in the evacuation strategy.
- Test the procedure following any recent alteration or changes to working practices.
- Familiarize new members of staff with procedures, and
- Test the arrangements for disabled people.
Who should take part?
Within each building the evacuation should be for all occupants except those who may need to ensure the security of the premises or people who on a risk assessed basis are required to remain with particular equipment or processes that cannot be closed down.
Premises that consist of several buildings on the same site should be dealt with one building at a time over an appropriate period unless the emergency procedure dictates otherwise.
You may find it helpful to include members of the public and safety issues are addressed before you do so.
Carrying out the drill
In simple premises, e.g. small bed and breakfasts and small hostels, it may be sufficient to sound the fire alarm at weekly intervals at a time when most guests/residents are on the premises to that they know what is sounds like. This should be followed by information about the fire evacuation procedures to be followed and where instruction can be found e.g. on notices in rooms.
In large premises, that have more than one escape route, the escape plan should be designed to evacuate all staff people on the assumption that one exit or stairway is unavailable because of the fire. This could be simulated by a designated person being located at a suitable point on an exit touts. Applying this scenario to different escape routes alternative escape routes which they may not normally use.
When carrying out the drill you might find it helpful to:
- Circulate details concerning the drill and inform all staff of their duty to participate. It may not be beneficial duty to have ‘surprise drills’ as the health and safety risks. Into duce may out weight the benefits.
- Ensure that equipment can be safety left.
- Nominate observers.
- Inform the alarm receiving Centre if the fire warming system is monitored (if the fire and rescue service is normally called directly from your premises, ensure that this does not happen).
- Inform member of staff at random to set of the alarm by operating the nearest alarm call point using the test key. This will indicate the level of knowledge regarding the location of the nearest call point.
More detailed information on fire drills and test evacuations are given in annexure E of Part 4, NBE of India 2005.
The roll call/checking the premises have been evacuated
Where possible carry out a roll call of your staff as soon as possible at the designated assembly point (s), and/or receive reports from wardens designated to ‘sweep’ the premises. You should note any people who are unaccounted for. In a real evacuation this information will need to be passed to the fire and rescue service on arrival.
Check that people have assembled at the evacuation point.
Once the roll call is complete or all reports have been received, allow people to return to the building. If the fire-warning system is monitored inform the alarm receiving Centre that the drill has now been complete and record the outcomes of the drill.
Monitoring and debrief
Throughout the drill the responsible person and nominated observers should pay particular attention to:
- Communication difficulties with regard to the roll Cal and establishing that everyone id accounted for.
- The use of the nearest available escape routes as opposed to common circulation routes.
- Difficulties with the opening of final exit doors
- Difficulties experienced by people with disabilities.
- The roles of specified people, e.g. fire wardens.
- Inappropriate actions. E.g. stopping to collect personal items, attempting to use lifts etc.; and
- Windows and doors not being closed as people leave.
On-the-spot debriefs are useful to discuss the fire drill, encouraging feedback from everybody. Later, reports from fire wardens and observations from people
should be collated and reviewed. Any conclusions and remedial actions should be recorded and implemented.
REMEMBER THE FOLLWING FOR YOUR SAFETY
Recent fatal fires in high-rise structures have prompted all to rethink fire safety. A key to fire safety for those who live and work in these special structures is to practice specific high-rise fire safety and prevention behaviors.
A.P. Fore & Every furious Department would like you to know there are simple fire safety steps you can take to prevent the loss of life and property in high-rise fires.
BE PREPARED FOR A HIGHRISE FIRE EMERGENCY
- Never lock fire exits or doorways, halls or stairways. Fire doors provide a way out during the fire and slow the spread of fire and smoke. Never prop stairway or other fire doors open.
- Learn your building evacuation plan. Make sure everyone knows what to do if the fire alarm sounds. Plan and practice your escape plan together.
- Be sure your building manager posts evacuation plans in high traffic areas, such as lobbies.
- Learn the sound of your building’s fire alarm and post emergency numbers near all telephones.
- Know who is responsible for maintaining the fire safety system. Make sure nothing blocks these devices and promptly report any sign of damage or malfunction to the building management.
DO NOT PANIC IN THE EVENT OF A HIGHRISE FIRE
- Do not assume anyone else has already called the fire department.
- Immediately call your local emergency number i.e. 101/108 Early notification of the fire department is important.
The dispatcher will ask questions regarding the emergency. Stay calm and give the dispatcher the information they request.
IF THE DOOR IS WARM TO THE TOUCH
Before you try to leave your apartment or office, feel the door with the back of your hand. If the door feels warm to the touch, do not attempt to open it. Stay in your apartment or office.
- Stuff the cracks around the door with towels, rags, bedding or tape and cover vents to keep smoke out.
- If there is a phone in the room where you are trapped, call the fire department again to tell them exactly where you are located. Do this even if you can see fire apparatus on the street below.
- Wait at a window and signal for help with a flashlight or by waving a sheet.
- If possible, open the window at the top and bottom, but do not break it, you may need to close the window if smoke rushes in.
- Be patient. Rescuing all the occupants of a high-rise building can take several hours.
IF THE DOOR IS NOT WARM TO THE TOUCH
- If you do attempt top open the door, brace your body against the door while staying low to the floor and slowly open it a crack. What you are doing is checking for the presence of smoke or fire in the hallway.
- If there is no smoke in the hallway or stairwells follow your buildings evacuation plan.
- If you don’t hear the building’s fire alarm, pull the nearest fire alarm “pull station” while exiting the floor.
- If you encounter smoke or flames on your way out, immediately return to your apartment or office.
AFTER A HIGHRISE FIRE EMERGENCY
- Once you are out of the building, STAY OUT! Do not go back inside for any reason.
- Tell the fire department if you know of anyone trapped in the building.
- Only enter when the fire department tells you it is safe to do so.
MAINTAIN AND INSTALL WORKING SMOKE ALARMS
No matter where you live, always install smoke alarms on every level of your home. Test them monthly and change the batteries at least once a year.
Remember, fire safety is your personal responsibility… Fire Stops with You!
HIGH RISE BUILDINGS
- Good house keeping must be ensured.
- Switch off the electrical mains before fighting the fire.
- Use staircases only for evacuation.
- Make sure to close the exit door while getting out of fire zones.
- Switches and fuses should conform to correct rating of circuit.
- Welding/Cutting jobs should be carried out under strict supervision.
- Keep means of escape clear of obstructions.
- Impart fire fighting training to occupants.
- Conduct fire/evacuation drills regularly.
- All receptacles should be emptied regularly.
- Faulty electrical appliances should be repaired/replaced immediately.
- Keep smoke/fire check doors closed.
- Keep means of escape clear of obstructions.
- Emergency organization must be setup.
- Do not use lifts in times of fire.
- Do not dispose off lighted cigarette buds carelessly.
- Do not paint fire detector/sprinkler heads.
- Do not plug too many electrical appliances in one socket.
- Do not make unauthorized electrical connections and over load the electrical points.
- Do not store inflammable materials inside the building.
- Do not refill the oil stoves when burning.
- Do not store LPG more than required quantity.
- Do not obstruct fire exit staircases with old/unused furniture.
- Do not return to collect valuables increase of outbreak of fire.
During Fire Emergencies in High-rise Buildings
- Keep the doors and windows shut to prevent entry of smoke.
- Evacuate without panic from the nearest exit.
- If fire is in upper floor, go to lower floor/open ground.
- Crawl on the floor if smoke obscures visibility.
- Request Fire services help dialing 101 or by messenger or by intimating nearest police station.
- Do not use lifts.
- Do not reenter the building to collect valuables.
- Do not hide in toilets/store rooms.